Natural genetic variation in complex mating behaviors of male Drosophila melanogaster.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):424 (2008)
Mating behavior, including courtship and copulation, is a main component of male fitness, especially in species with no parental care. Variation in this behavior can thus be a target for mate choice and sexual selection, and can lead to evolution. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has well...
The nature of nurture: a genomewide association scan for family chaos.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):361 (2008)
Widely used measures of the environment, especially the family environment of children, show genetic influence in dozens of twin and adoption studies. This phenomenon is known as gene-environment correlation in which genetically driven influences of individuals affect their environments. We cond...
Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):437 (2008)
Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on ...
Behavioural analysis of congenic mouse strains confirms stress-responsive Loci on chromosomes 1 and 12.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):407 (2008)
The way in which animals respond to stressful environments correlates with anxiety-related behaviour. To begin identifying the genetic factors that influence anxiety, we have studied the stress-responsiveness of inbred mouse strains using a modified form of the open field activity test (OFA), te...
Deletion of glucose transporter GLUT8 in mice increases locomotor activity.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):396 (2008)
Transport of glucose into neuronal cells is predominantly mediated by the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. In addition, GLUT8 is expressed in some regions of the brain. By in situ hybridization we detected GLUT8-mRNA in hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. However, its cellular and physiologi...
Gene-environment correlation and interaction in peer effects on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):339 (2008)
Peer relationships are commonly thought to be critical for adolescent socialization, including the development of negative health behaviors such as alcohol and tobacco use. The interplay between genetic liability and peer influences on the development of adolescent alcohol and tobacco use was ex...
Gene-environment interaction in adults' IQ scores: measures of past and present environment.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):348 (2008)
Gene-environment interaction was studied in a sample of young (mean age 26 years, N = 385) and older (mean age 49 years, N = 370) adult males and females. Full scale IQ scores (FSIQ) were analyzed using biometric models in which additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environm...
Genetic mapping of vocalization to a series of increasing acute footshocks using B6.A consomic and B6.D2 congenic mouse strains.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):417 (2008)
Footshock response is used to study a variety of biological functions in mammals including drug self-administration, learning and memory and nociception. However, the genetics underlying variability in footshock sensitivity are not well understood. In the current studies, a panel of B6.A consomi...
Human expression variation in the mu-opioid receptor is paralleled in rhesus macaque.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):390 (2008)
The mu-opioid receptor is a key component in many neurobiological systems including those affecting perceptions of pain and pleasure. In humans and non-human primate model systems, genetic variation in the receptor has been associated with numerous behavioral and physiological traits. In humans,...
A general test for gene-environment interaction in sib pair-based association analysis of quantitative traits.
Behavior Genetics 38(4):372 (2008)
Several association studies support the hypothesis that genetic variants can modify the influence of environmental factors on behavioral outcomes, i.e., G x E interaction. The case-control design used in these studies is powerful, but population stratification with respect to allele frequencies ...
Specification, testing, and interpretation of gene-by-measured-environment interaction models in the presence of gene-environment correlation.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):301 (2008)
Purcell (Twin Res 5:554-571, 2002) proposed a bivariate biometric model for testing and quantifying the interaction between latent genetic influences and measured environments in the presence of gene-environment correlation. Purcell's model extends the Cholesky model to include gene-environment ...
High heritability for a composite index of children's activity level measures.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):266 (2008)
Despite the high heritability of children's activity level, which forms part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there has only been a limited success with identifying candidate genes involved in its etiology. This may r...
Rapid selection response for contextual fear conditioning in a cross between C57BL/6J and A/J: behavioral, QTL and gene expression analysis.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):277 (2008)
We used short-term selection to produce outbred mouse lines with differences in contextual fear conditioning. Within two generations of selection all low selected mice were homozygous for the recessive tyrc allele and showed the corresponding albino coat color. Freezing differed in the high and ...
Transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights: effects of genes, social learning and mate selection.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):247 (2008)
The biological and social transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights are analyzed in a large sample of adult twins, siblings, and their parents. We present a linear model for family resemblance allowing for both genetic and cultural transmission of attitudes from parents to offspri...
Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):257 (2008)
Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobi...
Divergent physical activity and novel alternative responses to high fat feeding in polygenic fat and lean mice.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):292 (2008)
We determined whether altered physical activity levels might underlie the contrasting adiposity of a divergently selected polygenic murine model of metabolic syndrome (Fat; F) and leanness (Lean; L) mice. We measured physical activity with a long term running wheel experiment and performed an ad...
Do schools moderate the genetic determinants of smoking?
Behavior Genetics 38(3):234 (2008)
This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the extent to which school-level social and institutional factors moderate genetic tendencies to smoke cigarettes. Our analysis relies on a sub-sample of 1,198 sibling and twin pairs nested within 84 school...
Combined linkage and association mapping of quantitative trait Loci with missing completely at random genotype data.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):316 (2008)
In genetics study, the genotypes or phenotypes can be missing due to various reasons. In this paper, the impact of missing genotypes is investigated for high resolution combined linkage and association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We assume that the genotype data are missing complet...
Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.
Behavior Genetics 38(3):223 (2008)
The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion ...
Speed, variability, and timing of motor output in ADHD: which measures are useful for endophenotypic research?
Behavior Genetics 38(2):121 (2008)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) shares a genetic basis with motor coordination problems and probably motor timing problems. In line with this, comparable problems in motor timing should be observed in first degree relatives and might, therefore, form a suitable endophenotypic can...